# Course Description

Boy’s High school course descriptions:

# Mathematics

ALGEBRA I

Algebra I provides a formal development of the algebraic skills and concepts necessary to succeed in advanced courses. In particular, this course teaches the use of algebraic skills in a wide range of problem-solving situations. The concept of function is emphasized throughout the course. Topics include: (1) operations with real numbers, (2) linear equations and inequalities, (3) relations and functions, (4) polynomials, (5) algebraic fractions, and (6) nonlinear equations.

Text used: Prentice Hall Mathematics: Algebra 1 by Bellman, Bragg, Charles, Handin, and Kennedy

GEOMETRY

Geometry examines the properties of two- and three-dimensional objects. Proof and logic, as well as investigative strategies in drawing conclusions, are stressed. Properties and relationships of geometric objects include the study of: (1) points, lines, angles and planes; (2) polygons, with a special focus on quadrilaterals, triangles, right triangles; (3) circles; and (4) polyhedra and other solids.

Text used: Prentice Hall Mathematics: Geometry by Bass, Charles, Johnson, and Kennedy

ALGEBRA II

Algebra II is a course that extends the content of Algebra I and provides further development of the concept of a function. Topics include: (1) relations, functions, equations and inequalities; (2) conic sections; (3) polynomials; (4) algebraic fractions; (5) logarithmic and exponential functions; (6) sequences and series; and (7) counting principles and probability.

Text used: Prentice Hall Mathematics: Algebra 2 by Bellman, Bragg, Charles, Handin, and Kennedy

DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

Discrete Mathematics is a sophomore college course . Topics include: combinatorics, formal logic, proof techniques, and number theory.

Text used: Discrete and Combinatorial Mathematics by Ralph Grimaldi, Ph.D.

AP STATISTICS

AP Statistics is a sophomore college course. Topics include: discrete and continuous random variables, distribution functions, the Central Limit Theorem, hypothesis testing, ANOVA, and regression.

Text used: Applied Statistics for Engineers and Scientists, second edition by Devore and Farnum

AP CALCULUS

AP calculus is equivalent to Calculus I and II. Topics include: (1) functions, graphs, and limits, (2) derivatives, (3) integrals, and (4) polynomial approximations and power series.

Text used: Thomas’ Calculus: Early Transcendentals by Weir, Hass, and Giordano

Science

BIOLOGY with lab

Biology provides, through regular laboratory and field investigations, a study of the structures and functions of living organisms and their interactions with their environment. This study explores the functions and processes of cells, tissues, organs, and systems within various species of living organisms and the roles and interdependencies of organisms within populations, communities, ecosystems, and the biosphere. Students have opportunities to: (1) gain an understanding of the history of the development of biological knowledge, (2) explore the uses of biology in various careers, and (3) investigate biological questions and problems related to personal needs and social issues.

Text used: Prentice Hall Biology by Miller and Levine

The laboratory investigations were performed with a small group of other students. The majority of the labs were from Prentice Hall Biology Laboratory Manual A with additional dissections added to round out the course. Some labs were done virtually using Prentice Hall Biology: Virtual Labs CD-Rom (marked with a V).

Labs:

Observing the Uncertainty of Measurements

Identifying Organic Compounds

Investigating Chemical Cycles in the Biosphere

Observing Osmosis

V – Diffusion Through a Selectively Permeable Membrane

V – Osmosis Through a Selectively Permeable Membrane

V – Onion Cell Plasmolysis

Measuring the Effect of Light Intensity on Photosynthesis

Cellular Reproduction

V – Mitosis in Plant Cells

V – Comparing Mitosis in Plant and Animal Cells

Investigating Inherited Traits

V – Restriction Enzyme Cleavage and Electrophoresis

V – Bacterial Transformation-Ampicillin Resistance

Making Karyotypes

Modeling a Gene Pool

V – Estimating Allele Frequencies For One Trait with a Sample Population

V – Testing and Ideal Hardy-Weinberg Population

V – Selection against a Deleterious Allele

Using and Constructing a Dichotomous Key

Protozoan Predator – Prey Cycles

Comparing the Characteristics of Molds

Observing Root and Stem Structures

V – Examining Plant Stem Structure

Investigating Germination and Seedling Development

Comparing Sponges and Hydras

Observing the Structure of an Earthworm

Observing the Structure of a Clam

Observing the Structure of a Squid

Observing the Structure of a Starfish

Observing the Structure of a Grasshopper

Observing the Structure of a Crayfish

Comparing Invertebrate Body Plans

Observing the Structure of a Perch

Investigating Frog Anatomy

Observing the Structure of a Fetal Pig

Comparing Primates

Observing Vertebrate Skeletons

Observing Nervous Responses

Observing Bone Composition and Structure

Measuring Lung Capacity

Simulating Urinalysis

## CHEMISTRY with lab

Chemistry provides a study of useful models of the structure of matter and the mechanisms of its interactions, including laboratory investigations of matter and chemical reactions. This study begins with an introduction to the nature of chemistry and then progresses through more rigorous mathematical models and concepts. Students have opportunities to: (1) gain an understanding of the history of chemistry, (2) explore the uses of chemistry in various careers, (3) investigate chemical questions and problems related to personal needs and social issues, and (4) learn and practice laboratory safety.

Text used: Prentice Hall Chemistry by Wilbraham, Staley, Matta and Waterman

The laboratory investigations were performed either solo or with a small group of other students. The labs were drawn from the text and Prentice Hall Chemistry: Small Scale Laboratory Manual.

Labs:

Making Observations of Matter

A Study of Chemical Changes

Now What Do I Do?

Isotopes and Atomic Mass

Design and Construction of a Quantitative Spectroscope

Visible Spectra and the Nature of Light and Color

Flame Tests

A Periodic Table Logic Problem

Periodicity in Three Dimensions

Electron Configurations of Atoms and Ions and Solutions containing ions

Paper Chromatography

Chemical names and Formulas

Measuring Mass: A Means of Counting

Balancing Chemical Equations

Titration of Bleach

Titration: Determing How Much Acid is in a Solution

Analysis of Baking Soda

Absorption of Water by Paper Towels

The Behavior of Liquids and Solids

Carbon Dioxide from Antacid Tablets

Reactions of Aqueous Ionic Compounds

Identification of Eight Unknown Solutions

Electrolytes

Heat Fusion of Ice

Factors affecting the Rate of a Chemical Reaction

A Small Scale Colorimetric pH Meter

Titration Curves

Determination of an Activity Series

Electrochemical analysis of Metals

Electrolysis of Water

## PHYSICS with lab

Physics focuses on synthesizing the fundamental concepts and principles concerning matter and energy through the study of mechanics, wave motion, heat, light, electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism, and atomic and nuclear physics. Students have opportunities to: (1) acquire an awareness of the history of physics and its role in the birth of technology, (2) explore the uses of its models, theories, and laws in various careers, and (3) investigate physics questions and problems related to personal needs and social issues.

Text used: Physics, sixth edition by Giancoli

The laboratory investigations were performed solo and drawn from Physics: A Laboratory Manual by Puri, Zober, and Zober.

Labs:

Graphical Analysis

Measurements

Uniformly Accelerated Motion: Inclined Plane

Composition and Resolution of Forces

The Acceleration Due to Gravity

Friction

Newton’s Second Law of Motion

Centripetal Force

Elastic Collisions

Vibratory Motion of a Spring

The Velocity of Sound

Boyle’s Law

Electricity

Resistors and Ohm’s Law

Resistors in Series and Parallel

Snell’s Law

Lenses

The Compound Microscope

English

FRESHMAN ENGLISH

Through the integrated study of language, literature, and writing, Freshman English develops the use of language as a tool for learning and thinking and as a source of pleasure. The course works on identifying, analyzing, and composing with different elements, structures, and genres of written language. Literature instruction focuses on opportunities to read and comprehend a broad variety of literature applying appropriate reading strategies to enhance reading skills and literary appreciation and to develop vocabulary. Composition requires writing for various audiences and purposes while strengthening skills in paragraph and multi-paragraph writing.

Texts used: Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar: Gold by Carroll, Wilson, and Forlini and Prentice Hall Literature: Timeless Voice, Timeless Themes: Gold.

SOPHOMORE ENGLISH

Sophomore English reinforces and continues to make full use of many of the activities and skills of Freshman English. Literature instruction focuses on opportunities to respond critically, reflectively, and imaginatively to major authors from classic and contemporary works and practice distinguishing among the different types of contents and purposes language can hold. Composition component provides opportunities to write for various audiences and purposes. Goals are to identify and employ various elements of good writing in well organized descriptive, expository, and narrative writings. The formal study of grammar, usage, spelling, and language mechanics is integrated into the study of writing. The writing process includes prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing. Use of one of the manuals of style such as Modern Language Association [MLA], American Psychological Association [APA], or the Chicago Manual of Style [CMS] is required.

Texts used: Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar: Platinum by Carroll, Wilson, and Forlini and Prentice Hall Literature: Timeless Voice, Timeless Themes: Platinum.

SPEECH

Speech provides the study of and practice in the basic principles and techniques of effective oral communication. This course includes instruction in adapting speech to different audiences and purposes. Instruction took place in a small class setting, with opportunities to make different types of oral presentations including: (1) viewpoint, (2) instructional, (3) demonstration, (4) informative, (5) persuasive, and (6) impromptu.

There were opportunities to express subject matter knowledge and content through creative, analytical, and expository writing, as well as reading a variety of literary genre related to course content and speaking assignments. This course emphasizes research using technology and careful organization and preparation. A secondary focus was on the practice and development of critical listening skills.

The class was organized _____ and taught by ______

## DRAMA

Drama employs all the elements of a dramatic production – acting, costumes, set, props, lighting, and sound – to teach how a theater company works. The main focus of the class was centered around preparation for and performance of one play at the end of the year. All elements of the play were created and produced by the students. Side assignments relating to the history of the theater, dramatic techniques, and acting exercises were also assigned.

The class was organized _______ and taught by ______

AMERICAN LITERATURE

American Literature provides a survey of the literature produced in the United States from pre-Revolutionary times to the present. This course includes a study of the representative works of various literary genres that reflect the American culture. The study was divided across a variety of literary genres, such as drama, poetry, and prose, as well as Native American folk legends. Influences of classical literature can be experienced in the historical, literary, and cultural contexts. Quality works of various ethnic and cultural minorities, such as African-American writers, women writers, and Native American writers are included, as are the works of the contemporary writers. Written and oral exercises required students to analyze and explain how their readings of literature, history, and culture are interconnected and distinctly American.

Texts used: Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar: Ruby by Carroll, Wilson, and Forlini and Prentice Hall Literature: Timeless Voice, Timeless Themes: The American Experience.

BRITISH LITERATURE

British Literature provides a survey of representative literature produced by British authors, including those in the British Isles as well as those in the former British colonies. This course includes the study of major British authors from the Anglo-Saxon period to the present, literary movements, and intellectual trends. These authors and their works include the following: (1) Beowulf, (2) Chaucer, (3) Shakespeare, (4) Donne, (5) Milton, (6) Pope, (7) Swift, (8) Austen, (9) Wordsworth, (10) Keats, (11) Mary and Percy Shelley, (12) Tennyson, (13) the Bronte Sisters, (14) Joyce, (15) Yeats, and (16) Woolf. It also provides an examination of the contributions of British authors to specific literary genres, such as poetry, drama, the essay, and the novel. Discussion activities include opportunities to respond to the literature both analytically and reflectively.

Text used: Prentice Hall Literature: Timeless Voice, Timeless Themes: The British Tradition

WORLD LITERATURE

World Literature is a comparative literature course that surveys literature written by major authors of the world. This course compares representative works produced by writers of various nationalities, and eras, from Lao Tsu’s Tao Te Ching to Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird. Works by women and minority authors are included.

## Reading List – These are additional reading that was not part of any of the above-listed courses.

 Title Author Translated by: 1984 Orwell, George Aeneid, The Virgil Fitzgerald, Robert Agamemnon Aeschylus Hamilton, Edith Complete Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm, The Brothers Grimm Zipes, Jack Dracula Stoker, Bram Dragon’s Gate Yep, Laurence Dune Herbert, Frank Edison: A Biography Josephson, Matthew Edison: Inventing the Century Baldwin, Neil Edison: The Man who made the Future Clark, Ronald Epic of Gilgamesh, The Anonymous Mason, Herbert Fahrenheit 451 Bradbury, Ray Farewell to Manzannar Houston, Jeanne Wakatsuki Gulliver’s Travels Swift, Jonathan Histories, The Herodotus Waterfield, Robin Hobbit, The Tolkien, J.R.R. Huckleberry Finn Twain, Mark Iliad, The Homer Fitzgerald, Robert Longest Day, June 6, 1944, The Ryan, Cornelius Metamorphoses Ovid Mandelbaum, Allen Midsummer Night’s Dream, A Shakespeare, William Odyssey, The Homer Fitzgerald, Robert Oedipus Rex Sophocles Fitts, Dudley and Fitzgerald, Robert Oedipus Rex Sophocles Young, Sir George Old Possum’s Book of Practical Cats Eliot, T. S. Once and Future King, The White, T.H. Prometheus Bound Aeschylus Hamilton, Edith Sounder Armstrong, William Howard Streak of Luck, A: The Life and Legend of Thomas Alva Edison Conot, Robert E. Tale of Two Cities, A Dickens, Charles Trojan Women, The Euripides Hamilton, Edith Way Things Never Were, The Finkelstein, Norman

Social Studies

## UNITED STATES HISTORY, 1865 TO PRESENT

United States History, 1865 to Present builds upon concepts developed in previous studies of American history. The focus of this course is the interaction of key events, persons, and groups with political, economic, social, and cultural influences on state and national development in the late nineteenth, twentieth, and early twenty-first centuries. The course traces and analyzes chronological periods and examines the relationship of significant themes and concepts in United States history. The class focuses on developing skills and processes of historical thinking and inquiry that involve chronological thinking, comprehension, analysis and interpretation, and research that uses primary and secondary sources found at local and state historic sites, museums, libraries, and archival collections, including electronic sources. Opportunities are given to develop inquiry skills by gathering and organizing information from primary source material and a variety of historical and contemporary sources, accounts, and documents that provide diverse perspectives. Investigation of themes and issues includes cultural pluralism and diversity of opinion in American society.

Text used: Prentice Hall The American Nation: Civil War to the Present by James Davidson

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT

United States Government provides a framework for understanding the purposes, principles, and practices of constitutional representative democracy in the United States of America. Responsible and effective participation by citizens is stressed. Understanding the nature of citizenship, politics, and government will encourage understanding of the rights and responsibilities of citizens and the ability to explain how those rights and responsibilities as citizens are part of local, state, and national government in the United States today. The course focuses on examining how the United States Constitution protects individual rights and provides the structures and functions for the various levels of government. Furthermore, the course will then use that basis to analyze how the United States government interacts with other nations and evaluate the United States’ role in world affairs. Study about American government uses primary and secondary sources.

Text used: U.S. Government: Democracy in Action by Richard Remy Ph.D

ECONOMICS

Economics examines the allocation of resources and their alternative uses for satisfying human wants. This course analyzes the economic reasoning used as consumers, producers, savers, investors, workers, voters, and government agencies make decisions. Key elements of the course include a study of scarcity and economic reasoning, supply and demand, market structures, the role of government, national income determination, money and the role of financial institutions, economic stabilization, and trade. The course will explain that because resources are limited, people must make choices in all aspects of daily life and demonstrate the role that supply, demand, prices, and profits play in a market economy. It will also examine the functions of government in a market economy and study market structures, including the organization and role of businesses. The course then focuses on the role of economic performance, money, stabilization policies, and trade in the United States.

Text used: Economics: Principles and Practices by Gary Clayton, Ph.D

## AP GEOGRAPHY

The purpose of the AP course in Human Geography is to introduce the systematic study of patterns and processes that have shaped human understanding, use, and alteration of Earth’s surface. A goal of the course is to employ spatial concepts and landscape analysis to examine human social organization and its environmental consequences. The course also touches on the methods and tools geographers use in their science and practice. The topics studied in an AP Human Geography course cover goals that build on the National Geography Standards developed in 1994.

Texts used: Human Geography, Eighth Edition, by Blij, Murphy, and Fouberg, and Economic Geography by Wheeler, Muller, Thrall, and Fik

WORLD HISTORY

World History emphasizes events and developments in the past that greatly affected large numbers of people across broad areas of the earth and that significantly influenced peoples and places in subsequent eras. Some key events and developments pertain primarily to particular people and place; others, by contrast, involve transcultural interactions and exchanges between various peoples and places in different parts of the world. Studying world history requires practicing skills and processes of historical thinking and inquiry that involve chronological thinking, comprehension, analysis and interpretation, research, issues-analysis, and decision-making. The course will compare and contrast events and developments involving diverse peoples and civilizations in different regions of the world.

Text used: World History: Continuity and Change by William Hanes, III

PHILOSOPHY

Philosophy provides for the study of our understanding of life and the world. This course provides a broad overview of philosophy. The emphasis of the course work is on developing an understanding of philosophy and how to apply it to human concerns. Topics include logic, ethics, political philosophy, epistemology, and metaphysics.

HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT

History of Economic Thought investigates the historical development of economic thought, from the Greeks through current thinkers. The works of economists and economic philosophers such as Adam Smith and Milton Friedman are studied.

Main text used: Brief History of Economic Genius, A by Paul Strathern

French

FRENCH I

French I provides opportunities to respond to and give oral directions and commands and to make routine requests in the classroom and in public places; understand and use appropriate forms of address in courtesy expressions and be able to tell about daily routines and events; ask and answer simple questions and participate in brief guided conversations related to their needs and interests; read isolated words and phrases in a situational context, such as menus, signs, and schedules; comprehend brief written directions and information; read short narrative texts on simple topics; and write familiar words and phrases in appropriate contexts and respond in writing to various stimuli. Additionally, the course provides information about awareness of current events in the cultures; the major holidays and geographical features of the countries being studied; greeting and leave taking behaviors in a variety of social situations; the appropriate way to respond to introductions and use courtesy behaviors; and appropriate etiquette in a variety of social settings.

Text used: Bon Voyage – Level I by Schmitt and Lutz

FRENCH II

French II enables participation in conversations dealing with daily activities and personal interests. The course focuses on asking questions regarding routine activities; participating in conversations on a variety of topics; relating a simple narrative about a personal experience or event; interacting in a variety of situations to meet personal needs, such as asking permission, asking for or responding to an offer of help, and expressing preferences pertaining to everyday life; understanding main ideas and facts from simple texts over familiar topics; reading aloud with appropriate intonation and pronunciation; and writing briefly in response to given situations, for example postcards, personal notes, phone messages, and directions. Additionally, the course provides information on major geographical features, historical events, and political structures of the country being studied; on different aspects of the culture, including the visual arts, architecture, literature and music; and on awareness of time expectations, such as arriving for appointments and social engagements.

Text used: Bon Voyage – Level II by Schmitt and Lutz

FRENCH III

French III provides instruction that enables understanding and appreciating other cultures by comparing social behaviors and values of people using the languages being learned. In addition, the course focuses on responding to factual and interpretive questions and interacting in a variety of social situations, such as expressing regrets, condolences, and complaints, and using more than rote memory formula phrases; reading for comprehension from a variety of authentic materials, such as advertisements in newspapers and magazines, and cartoons and personal correspondence; reading short literary selections of poetry, plays, and short stories; completing authentic forms and documents and taking notes that require familiar vocabulary and structures; writing paraphrases, summaries, and brief compositions; describing different aspects of the culture, using the foreign language where appropriate; and

seeking help in a crisis situation and participating appropriately at special family occasions, such as birthdays, weddings, funerals, and anniversaries.

Text used: Bon Voyage – Level III by Schmitt and Lutz

Fine Arts

PERFORMANCE DANCE: MODERN

Sequential and systematic learning experiences are provided in Modern dance. Activities utilize a wide variety of materials and experiences and are designed to develop techniques appropriate within the genre, including individual and group instruction in performance repertoire and skills. The course focuses on developing the ability to express thoughts, perceptions, feelings, and images through movement. This performance class provides opportunities to experience degrees of physical prowess, technique, flexibility, and the study of dance performance as an artistic discipline and as a form of artistic communication. Learning activities and experiences develop abilities to understand the body’s physical potential, technical functions, and capabilities; understand and assimilate the basic elements of technique within Modern dance; demonstrate an understanding of the varied styles within the genre; develop listening, comprehension, and memorization skills; use simple to complex and compound dance patterns within the genre; identify and use appropriate terminology related to style and technique; and understand musical phrasing, rhythmic structures, and meters.

Instruction provided _________

ART HISTORY

Art History focuses on sequential learning experiences that encompass art history, art criticism, and aesthetics. In the area of art history; the course investigates the meaning and significance of the cultural and historical foundations of world art, which include ideas, beliefs, and values as reflected in works of art. The course provides a structure for classifying major styles of art and artists and developing a foundation for understanding the historical progression of art. In the area of art criticism; the course investigates the meaning and significance in works of art by analyzing common characteristics and interpretations across time and cultures, and formulating interpretations of the work. In the area of aesthetics; the course investigates the meaning and significance by: (1) formulating evaluations of the work of art based on personal questions about the nature of art, (2) reflecting on the changing definitions of art throughout history, and (3) assessing their own ideas and definitions of art in relation to the art community.

Additionally, the course investigates works of art and artifacts including those produced by men and women of multiple cultural groups. Art museums and community and state resources are utilized.

Text used: Art in Focus by Gene Mittler

Other

## PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Physical Education emphasizes health-related fitness and developing the skills and habits necessary for a lifetime of activity. This program includes skill development and the application of rules and strategies of complex difficulty in at least three of the following different movement forms: (1) health-related fitness activities (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and body composition), (2) aerobic exercise, (3) team sports, (4) individual and dual sports, (5) gymnastics, (6) outdoor pursuits, (7) self-defense, (8) aquatics, (9) dance, and (10) recreational games.

Activities included studying the martial arts Jeet Kune Do and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, swimming, and recreational games.

DRIVER EDUCATION

Driver Education provides the knowledge needed to develop the skills, habits, and attitudes necessary to interact safely and effectively with other highway users in a wide variety of environments, situations, and conditions. This course includes a combination of classroom instruction and behind-the-wheel experiences in on-street environments. The Driver Education course also provides for learning related to: (1) driving skills, (2) traffic laws, (3) the laws of nature, (4) driving attitudes, (5) occupant protection, (6) the effect of physical and mental conditions of the driver, (7) vehicle purchase, (8) insurance and maintenance, (9) the ecology and energy efficiency of various transportation modes, (10) energy efficient driving techniques, and (11) sharing the roadway with other users, including motorcyclists and pedestrians.

Instruction was through ________

HEALTH EDUCATION

High school health education provides the basis for continued methods of developing knowledge, concepts, skills, behaviors, and attitudes related to health and well-being. This course includes the major content areas in a planned, sequential, comprehensive health education curriculum: (1) Growth and Development; (2) Mental and Emotional Health; (3) Community and Environmental Health; (4) Nutrition; (5) Family Life Education; (6) Consumer Health; (7) Personal Health; (8) Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Education; (9) Intentional and Unintentional Injury; and (10) Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. The course explores the effect of health behaviors on an individual’s quality of life. This course focuses on understanding that health is a lifetime commitment by analyzing individual risk factors and health decisions that promote health and prevent disease.

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